They spent hours optimizing their healing spells and living the lives of draenei shamans. The constitution claim here is important; it is trivial that differences in pragmatic circumstances can cause differences in knowledge.
She offered what was in effect a recipe for constructing Gettier cases: Varieties of consequentialism can be differentiated by the beneficiary of the good consequences. Note that some of these are fixed costs, and others are variable costs.
That would be a problematic outcome because the intuition the case is meant to elicit is that Henry does not have knowledge. Sensitivity, to a first approximation, is this counterfactual relation: Notice that in these cases and many of the others that motivate the relevant-alternatives approach to knowledge, there is an intuitive sense in which the relevant alternatives tend to be more similar to actuality than irrelevant ones.
In addition, some of the arguments that are used to undercut the data motivating pragmatic encroachment are also taken to undermine the case for contextualism; see again Rysiew and Brown In fact, the main goal was to train Pacific Islanders to act as evangelists in their home communities.
Hui Shi implicitly addressed the claim that the correct use of words depends on objective patterns of similarity and difference. The precise relation between propositional and doxastic justification is subject to controversy, but it is uncontroversial that the two notions can come apart.
This is what works to effect everything that is beyond the ordinary power of man, outside the common processes of nature; it is present in the atmosphere of life, attaches itself to persons and to things, and is manifested by results which can only be ascribed to its operation.
Another view worth mentioning in this context is that of Hilary Kornblithwhich has it that knowledge is a natural kind, to be analysed the same way other scientific kinds are. Eudaemonist theories Greek eudaimonia, "happiness" hold that the goal of ethics consists in some function or activity appropriate to man as a human being, and thus tend to emphasize the cultivation of virtue or excellence in the agent as the end of all action.
Rather than composing knowledge from various independent components, this analysis demands instead that the epistemic states are related to one another in substantive ways. Austronesian languages and cultures, for instance, can be found in all three areas.
What do you think Machiavelli would make of contemporary American politics? However, again we find little hint that Song Xing reflected on the concept of dao itself and how it is involved in this analysis of how society injects attitudes into xinheart-mind.
They made fantasy games and imaginary worlds, and came to love what they had created. Naturally, he will on numerous occasions form false beliefs in the presence of barns.
We make normative or evaluative judgments only against the background of a presupposed way of justifying and interpreting them. Consider again the case of the barn facades. The latter option is an instance of static budgeting. A difference in pragmatic circumstances can constitute a difference in knowledge.
A shot is apt if it is accurate because adroit. These are called "agent-neutral" and "agent-focused" theories respectively. Usually, variances in fixed costs are due to: Mohists attempted to regiment the debate by insisting on fastandards for interpreting guiding language.
Bibliography Almeder, Robert,Harmless Naturalism.
The status of potential counterexamples will not always be straightforward to apply. Agent-focused consequentialism, on the other hand, focuses on the particular needs of the moral agent.
So they might echo the anarchists rejection of rules or principles but for quite different reasons, i. The result was our current, disenchanted world. Mohism had presupposed one a natural impulse to benefit as had the Confucian intuitionist, Mencius a natural moral tendency in the heart-mind.
We still use these categories today, despite their conceptual inadequacy. Since the recipe is a general one, it appears to be applicable to any condition one might add to the JTB theory, so long as it does not itself entail truth.
This feature allows contextualists to offer an effective, though not uncontroversial, response to skepticism. Theoretical Daoism focused on the insolubility of this ru-moConfucian-Mohist debate. Much of the twentieth-century literature on the analysis of knowledge took the JTB analysis as its starting-point.
On the contrary, the higher unit count is probably due to greater sales revenues and profits. Fixed costs are in principle should not depend on manufacturing volume and should be more predictable than variable costs. In form and intent, it is a prescription—a daoguide.
The qingpre-social yudesires are relatively few and easy to satisfy. Ethical egoism Ethical egoism can be understood as a consequentialist theory according to which the consequences for the individual agent are taken to matter more than any other result.The concept of “Daoism” as a theme or group did not exist at the time of the Classical Daoists, This strategy generates a distinctive analysis of key normative concepts of Ancient China.
Han historians categorized many of the figures in the Daoist history as students of Huang-Lao. The propositional knowledge that is the analysandum of the analysis of knowledge literature is paradigmatically expressed in English by sentences of the form “S knows that p”, where “S” refers to the knowing subject, and “p” to the proposition that is known.
justifies the means is a clear example of how colonialism has been justified, without consideration of the impact on the indigenous people, in achieving the objectives of the colonising power (Goodwin & Machiavelli, ).
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Can you provide some historical examples of "The ends justify the means"? Update Cancel.
Answer Wiki. 7 Answers. John Stanley, Read more history and historical biography than any other nonfiction.
The end never justifies the means, or at least not when the means inflict suffering and death on innocent sentient beings. The History of Mana: How an Austronesian Concept Became a Video Game Mechanic By Alex Golub – Published June 17, On January 17, the dimensional ship Exodar crash-landed on Azuremyst Isle, just off the northwest coast of Kalimdor.Download