The evaluation is ex post, and his list includes opposites Savonarola too would have burned Fra Dolcino. All points of view can be heard: These background limitations of tolerance are normally prior to the explicit and judicial limitations as defined by the courts, custom, governments, etc.
Within the framework of such a social structure, tolerance can be safely practiced and proclaimed. Such a society does not yet exist; progress toward it is perhaps more than before arrested by violence and suppression on a global scale. To discuss tolerance in such a society means to reexamine the issue of violence and the traditional distinction between violent and non-violent action.
Tolerance itself stands subject to overriding criteria: To start applying them at the point where the oppressed rebel against the oppressors, the have-nots Business and morals in literature essay the haves is serving the cause of actual violence by weakening the protest against it.
The tolerance which is the life element, the token of a free society, will never be the gift of the powers that be; it can, under the prevailing conditions of tyranny by the majority, only be won in the sustained effort of radical minorities, willing to break this tyranny and to work for the emergence of a free and sovereign majority - minorities intolerant, militantly intolerant and disobedient to the rules of behavior which tolerate destruction and suppression.
I shall presently discuss the question as to who is to decide on the distinction between liberating and repressive, human and inhuman teachings and practices; I have already suggested that this distinction is not a matter of value-preference but of rational criteria.
Tolerance is first and foremost for the sake of the heretics--the historical road toward humanitas appears as heresy: But the tolerance shown to them is deceptive and promotes co-ordination. To take a most controversial case: Such extreme suspension of the right of free speech and free assembly is indeed justified only if the whole of society is in extreme danger.
This means that the ways should not be blocked on which a subversive majority could develop, and if they are blocked by organized repression and indoctrination, their reopening may require apparently undemocratic means.
The liberating force of democracy was the chance it gave to effective dissent, on the individual as well as social scale, its openness to qualitatively different forms of government, of culture, education, work--of the human existence in general.
The same holds true for the General Strike. The comparative evaluation in terms of the number of victims is the quantifying approach which reveals the man-made horror throughout history that made violence a necessity.
I maintain that our society is in such an emergency situation, and that it has become the normal state of affairs. With all its limitations and distortions, democratic tolerance is under all circumstances more humane than an institutionalized intolerance which sacrifices the rights and liberties of the living generations for the sake of future generations.
Thus, within a repressive society, even progressive movements threaten to turn into their opposite to the degree to which they accept the rules of the game. This rupture--prerequisite and token of all freedom of thought and of speech--cannot be accomplished within the established framework of abstract tolerance and spurious objectivity because these are precisely the factors which precondition the mind against the rupture.
While the reversal of the trend in the educational enterprise at least could conceivably be enforced by the students and teachers themselves, and thus be self-imposed, the systematic withdrawal of tolerance toward regressive and repressive opinions and movements could only be envisaged as results of large-scale pressure which would amount to an upheaval.
This violence indeed breeds violence. The individual potential is first a negative one, a portion of the potential of his society: Tolerance of free speech is the way of improvement, of progress in liberation, not because there is no objective truth, and improvement must necessarily be a compromise between a variety of opinions, but because there is an objective truth which can be discovered, ascertained only in learning and comprehending that which is and that which can be and ought to be done for the sake of improving the lot of mankind.
But if the whole governmental system and your non-violent thoughts are conditioned by a thousand-year-old oppression, your passivity only serves to place you on the side of the oppressors. But I believe that there is a "natural right" of resistance for oppressed and overpowered minorities to use extralegal means if the legal ones have proved to be inadequate.
There, passive resistance was carried through on a massive scale, which disrupted, or threatened to disrupt, the economic life of the country. By whom, and according to what standards, can the political distinction between true and false, progressive and regressive for in this sphere, these pairs are equivalent be made and its validity be justified?
However, granted the empirical rationality of the distinction between progress and regression, and granted that it may be applicable to tolerance, and may justify strongly discriminatory tolerance on political grounds cancellation of the liberal creed of free and equal discussionanother impossible consequence would follow.
I suggested that the distinction between true and false tolerance, between progress and regression can be made rationally on empirical grounds.
Suppression of the regressive ones is a prerequisite for the strengthening of the progressive ones.Almost 2 months into a postdoc and my brain is on over the place w/ research ideas, papers, evolving projects, and finishing past projects.
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@tressiemcphd there is a whole essay to be written there about racialized gender stereotypes and cleavage.
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THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or suppressed.Download